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                            如此語言風格,你曾用過嗎? ——例談考場作文中詞的異化現象

                            發布時間:2019-01-01瀏覽數:390

                            江蘇海安縣紫石中學   崔益林(江蘇省語文特級教師)


                            【內容摘要】如今,詞的語法功能變化,尤其是形容詞動化,在文學作品中已是屢見不鮮有人說這是一種詞類活用,也有人說這是一種修辭手法,其實都有道理關鍵是如何讓此種語言現象為我們的習作增光添彩筆者撰文試圖通過詞的各種異化現象對這些異化現象加以分析,能夠達到強化語言訓練作用的目的,并期許能夠得到大家的認可

                            【關 詞】詞性異化 語言風格 語言亮色 

                             

                                我們先來看這樣一些句子:

                                1.那層層鋪展的油菜花兒,浩瀚著、熱烈……

                                2.秋雨寒涼了十月,葉兒零落在風里。國慶的燈籠紅了節日的喜慶。

                                3.甜甜的聲音似流水,在我的心頭流淌,著心,著胃。

                                4.香,氤氳全身;暖,滿溢藍天。輕合琴蓋。雨霏霏。擷一抹殷紅,甜笑。

                                5.而詩人采回的春天,卻永恒地綠著香著

                                以上這些句子,都是我們從學生近日的作文中所挑選出來,從這些優美的句子中,大家也許都已經注意到這樣一種語言現象,也就是在正常的語法系統中這些加點的詞,本來都是一個形容詞的,但是一旦到了具體的語言環境中,就改變了原有的詞性,這樣一改以后,不僅讓語言更加輕松活潑,更能看得出我們在駕馭語言時的功力。比如像以上例句中的第5句,句中的“綠”和“香”本來都是形容詞,但是在這個句子中卻改變了形容詞的作用,變成了動詞,而一旦使用了這樣的動詞,就把詩人筆下的春天所承載的文化內涵寫活了,從而突出了作者所要表達的文化傳承這樣的主旨。

                                其實,這樣的例子,在我們所學的文學作品中是屢見不鮮的,比如我們最為熟悉的當屬宋代著名的政治家、文學家王安石的那首《泊船瓜洲》,這首詩是這樣的:

                            京口瓜洲一水間,鐘山只隔數重山。春風又江南岸,明月何時照我還?

                                而詩中那句春風又綠江南岸”之所以膾炙人口千古傳誦關鍵就好在一個“綠”字用得出神入化。其實,關于這個“綠”字,王安石可謂是煞費苦心,絞盡腦汁,先后用過“入”“到”“過”“滿”等多個動詞,但是思來想去,總覺得這些動詞用起來太死板,始終不如“綠”字用起來鮮活、生動。當他走到船頭,眺望江南,春風拂過,青草搖舞,麥浪起伏,顯得生機勃勃,景色如畫。他覺得精神一爽,忽見春草碧綠,這個“綠”字,不正是我要找的那個字嗎?所以最終才確定了這個“綠”字,正由于如此,也成就了中國詩歌創作史上一段用詞佳話。一個“綠”字,化靜為動,繪形繪色地向讀者展示出春風送暖,江南生機勃勃、春意盎然的動人景象。

                                類似的例子,我們再來看宋末詞人蔣捷所寫的《一剪梅 · 舟過吳江》這樣一首詞,這首詞是詞人乘船經過吳江縣時的所作。詞的內容是這樣的:

                                                    一剪梅  舟過吳江       
                                 一片春愁待酒澆,江上舟搖,樓上簾招。秋娘渡與泰娘橋。風又飄飄,雨又蕭蕭。

                                 何日歸家洗客袍銀字笙調,心字香澆。流光容易把人拋,了櫻桃,了芭蕉。 
                                這首詞以首句的“春愁”為核心,用“點”“染”結合的手法,選取典型景物和情景層層渲染,主要寫作者乘船漂泊在途中客居異鄉凄冷愁悶,用于表達倦懶思歸之心情,以及韶華易逝、人生易老的感慨。

                                而最為精彩的當屬最后三句,“流光容易把人拋”,暗指時光流逝之快。“紅了櫻桃,綠了芭蕉”兩句中的一“紅”一“綠”,將春光漸漸消逝于初夏的來臨中這個過程充分表現了出來。尤其是作者化抽象的時光為可感的意象,以櫻桃和芭蕉這兩種植物的顏色變化,抓住夏初櫻桃成熟時顏色“變紅”,芭蕉葉子由淺綠“變為深綠”,把看不見的時光流逝轉化為可以捉摸的形象,具體地可感地抒發了作者年華易逝,人生易老的感嘆。

                            同樣是兩個形容詞,但是在這首詞中卻轉變為一個動詞,就是這樣的變化,卻起到了意想不到的效果。

                            文學作品如此,那么在現實生活中,是不是也能見到如此用詞現象呢?

                            在一年一度的“感動中國”年度人物評選中,大家最感興趣也是最為關注的莫過于為這些“感動人物”所給予的頒獎詞。

                            我們不妨也列舉幾例來詮釋這種語言現象。

                            6.滿天星斗璀璨,寫下你的傳奇

                                                       2016年“感動中國”人物孫家棟頒獎辭)

                                7.小巷中帶血的腳印,刻下你的無私和無畏

                                                       2016年“感動中國”人物王鋒頒獎辭)

                                8.你跋涉了許多路……絢爛了兩代人的童年,花白了你的麻花辮。

                                                       2016年“感動中國”人物支月英頒獎辭)

                                9.四處奔走募集善良打開那些被折疊的人生

                                                       2016年“感動中國”人物梁益建頒獎辭)

                            在當今流行歌壇上,使用這種語言現象的歌詞也是屢見不鮮。如:

                            10.所以悲傷著你的悲傷,幸福著你的幸福。     

                                                                    (歌曲《牽手》)

                                11.遙望愛的星斗,我枯萎了所有。          

                                                                    (鳳凰傳奇歌曲《郎的誘惑》)

                            也就是說,這種用詞現象已經滲透到語言的方方面面,不僅合情,更為合理。如果翻開我們的學生習作,我們發現,這種用詞現象,在我們的學生作文中已經是司空見慣,屢見不鮮了,尤其是在近兩年的中考作文中更是俯拾皆是,往往就是由于使用了這種語言現象,而使得文章成為一類卷,甚至滿分作文。

                            這里我們不妨列舉最近兩年全國各地中考滿分作文中的此種用詞現象。

                            12.湖面柔柔地升騰著一層淡白的煙氣,雨霧交織,模糊了這塊黛色的碧玉,也阻絕了我遠眺的眼。

                                          2016年南通市中考滿分作文《分享,為成長添一抹亮色》)

                                13.只是驟時來得太突然,驚恐了一群秋冬的黃葉浸染了獨行的

                                          2016年成都市A卷中考滿分作文《散步》)

                                14.那一道道墨跡燦爛了水中天上的兩輪明月,也繽紛了那一季秋實。

                                              2016年長沙中考滿分作文《凡人小事的背后》》)

                                15.在悠悠的歲月里,老灶就自顧自地斑駁著寂靜著

                                              2016年安徽省中考滿分作文《你是我最感動的人》)

                            16.歲月就這樣葳蕤著。

                                          2016年江西省中考滿分作文《那個影響了我的人》)

                                17.那個素面朝天的老人與我所分享的一切,為我的成長添了一抹亮色,也瑩亮了我的生命。

                                          2016年重慶市中考滿分作文《感謝那個為我提燈的人》)

                            18.我與阿婆分享這逶迤千年的精魂。

                                           2016年寧波市中考滿分作文《亮》)

                            ……

                            有人說這只是詞類活用的一種形式,而且并不僅僅是形容詞有此種用法,其他詞也一樣可以,并不為怪;也有人說這是運用了拈連的修辭手法。我覺得都沒有錯,關鍵是在使用這種語言現象時一定要貼切自然,無痕對接,千萬不能為打造語言而刻意活用,刻意拈連。單純注重字面上的聯系,這無疑會弄巧成拙,得不償失,而應該注重從內容方面考慮,從情感角度考慮,唯有這樣,才能“拈”得自然,“連”得貼切。

                            比如:夜里天冷北風急,班長下崗月兒西;手拿針線燈下坐,為我熬夜縫軍衣;線兒在軍衣上,情意在我心里。

                            這個句子中作者把縫軍衣的“縫”巧妙地與下一句的“縫在我心里”聯系在一起,組成“情意縫在我心里”,深刻表現了戰士們互相關心、互相愛護、互相幫助的深厚革命情誼。

                            又如在高原的土地上種下一株株的樹秧,也就是種下了一個美好的希望

                            這個句子中的“種下一株株的樹秧”與“種下了一個美好的希望”,這兩者之間在語義上必須有著必然的內在聯系。“種下一株株的樹秧”是“種下了一個美好的希望”產生的依據或條件,種下了一個美好的希望”只有聯系種下一株株的樹秧,才能得到確切深刻的理解。如果離開了“種下一株株的樹秧”這一個依據,直接出現種下一株株的樹秧,文意就不容易理解。因為種樹是造福后代,所以說“種下了一個美好的希望”這樣就水到渠成。

                            類似的句子像:這架飛機該有多大的重量啊!它載著解放區人民的心,載著全中國人民的希望,載著我們國家的命運。

                            這個句子中的三個“載著”實際上是接著“飛機載著去重慶談判的毛主席和中國共產黨代表團”這一“潛臺詞”移用過來的。如果沒有這樣的前提,那么“載著……心”“載著……希望”“載著……命運”就無所著落。

                             在考場作文中,尤其是滿分作文出現此類活用的現象依然很多。比如:

                            19.在悠悠的歲月里,老灶就自顧自地斑駁著寂靜著

                                       2016年南通市中考滿分作文《分享,為成長添一抹亮色》)

                            20.搖響了深秋懸停的空氣搖響了烈火涂紅的暮色

                                       2016年淄博市中考滿分作文《下次,你會做得更好》)

                            21.素紙軒墨,詩韻綿綿。一曲暗香疏影祈蔭一地光輝,使得心也沉醉。

                                         2016年蘇州市中考滿分作文《東風為我來》)

                            22.一縷明月照亮相逢的甘甜剪下那段溫暖的時光,與回憶里的褶皺重疊。         2016年鹽城市中考滿分作文《有那樣一抹色彩》)           

                            ……

                            這種語言現象不僅受到閱卷老師的青睞,更重要的是詩化了文章的語言,而語言又是中考作文評分標準中最為看重的一部分,所以我們在平時的作文訓練中一定要予以重視,并注重此種語言的強化訓練。所謂“養兵千日,用兵一時”,我們期盼著在優化作文語言的同時,也一樣亮化一下我們的作文思維模式。


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